It’s no secret that a pregnant woman’s diet should be balanced and vitamin-rich. After all, a pregnant woman is not only feeding herself but also the baby in her womb. The choice of foods is based on their quality and personal taste preferences. In this article, we’ll discuss how to eat properly during pregnancy to feel energized and provide the baby with the necessary nutrients.
Principles of nutrition by trimesters
Modern dieticians classify the menu of proper nutrition for pregnant women by trimesters of pregnancy. We’ll take a closer look at their key principles, taking into account the physiological changes in a woman’s body.
Nutrition in the first trimester
Despite the fact that the size of the fetus is tiny in the first trimester, there is a colossal hormonal restructuring in the female body, which is accompanied by toxicosis, urinary disorders, a poor reaction to the smell and taste of food. The diet regime for pregnant women in the first trimester has some peculiarities:
- The daily calorie intake should reach 2700.
- One should not give in to the body’s provocations: a mother may still feel hungry even after eating. Dietitians recommend following the principles of fractional nutrition.
- Consume protein-enriched foods. As is known, these organic substances are the building material for the human body, and this principle also applies to the fetus. Protein is found in large amounts in chicken, turkey, veal meat, and in fish such as salmon and trout.
- Include fiber in your diet. It prevents the onset of constipation. Fiber is found in vegetables, hard fruits, and bran.
- Do not neglect foods that contain iodine and vitamins B. Seafood, nuts, eggs – all of these products are essential for proper functioning of the mother’s endocrine system.
- Drink water. Water is known to be the foundation of life. This wisdom also applies to the intrauterine development of the child. In addition, when combined with lemon, water can help prevent toxicosis, which most pregnant women experience in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Important! If a pregnant woman is constantly experiencing bouts of toxicosis, she should exclude foods that have a specific smell and taste from her diet. The diet during toxicosis should be bland and gentle until the signs disappear. Onions and garlic should be removed from the diet, as these vegetables are difficult to digest for a weakened female body.
Nutrition in the second trimester.
Caring future grandparents and parents believe that the more a pregnant woman eats, the more important micronutrients both she and the baby will receive. However, this is a mistaken belief. Healthy eating during pregnancy involves the following aspects:
- Daily calorie intake should reach 3000.
- Control of salt consumption. Sodium retains fluid in the body, which can cause swelling and, in some cases, high blood pressure as early as the second trimester.
- Consumption of calcium-rich foods. This element is essential for the baby’s bones and joints. Calcium is abundant in dairy products, nuts, and sesame seeds.
- Inclusion in the diet of foods enriched with vitamin D – olive oil, eggs, fatty fish.
- To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, a pregnant mother’s diet should include liver, all kinds of greens, and legumes.
The second trimester is the most active period of development for the baby’s systems and organs. The aforementioned products serve as building materials for their proper formation.
Nutrition in the third trimester
In the last trimester, the diet of a healthy pregnant woman should be aimed at stimulating lactation and the final, and most importantly, correct formation of the baby’s organs and systems:
- The daily calorie intake should reach 3100.
- In case of heartburn, the diet during pregnancy involves excluding acidic and spicy foods. Fried dishes and coffee can also provoke an increase in acidity.
- Animal fats should be replaced to a greater extent with vegetable fats. They contain Omega-3 and Omega-6, which promote the absorption of minerals and vitamins.
- Control the consumption of simple carbohydrates. This dietary restriction during pregnancy prevents gaining excess weight, meteorism, and dyspepsia.
- Include plant-based foods in the diet. Seasonal gifts of nature, such as vegetables and fruits, are particularly beneficial for pregnant women. They do not contain nitrates and other chemical components, toxins that suppress fetal development.
What foods should pregnant women avoid?
Above, we mentioned the most useful products for pregnant women at different stages of pregnancy. However, there is a list of treats that fall into the prohibited category, including:
- Smoked meats.
- Instant noodles.
- Alcoholic beverages.
- Carbonated drinks.
- Confectionery products.
- Sausage products.
The aforementioned prohibited products during pregnancy contain a high percentage of preservatives, carbohydrates, carcinogens, and toxins that can lead to nutritional imbalances and fetal developmental defects.
The described principles of nutrition for pregnant women are also important to follow during lactation because a mother’s milk is the main source of energy and essential nutrients for a baby’s development. And the developed behavior culture during pregnancy will help a woman not only get the necessary vitamins and minerals from food but also maintain her figure in balance!
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